Mitragyna speciosa, commonly known as Kratom, is an evergreen tropical tree. This is a herbaceous tree from the Coffee family. It natively belongs to Southeast Asian countries. The humid climate, optimum pH, and enriched soil of these countries, including Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, Papua, and New Guinea.
Mitragyna leaves have a long history of being used as a traditional remedy and cure for specific health problems in these countries.
Leaves are a significant part of the plant. These have been used traditionally and in various modern and homoeopathic medications.
In the 1990s, Kratom was introduced in Western society. Initially, it was used as such or as brewed tea. But as time went by, the development went on increasing, and now a variety of physical conditions and a wide range of Ketum strains are available around the globe.
The demand for Mitragyna has been increasing day by day. Keeping its quality at a premium in bulk quantity has become quite competitive. So the measures have been adopted in Kratom farming at the standards set by international gold standards in agriculture.
There have been seven golden rules for the eco-farming of Kratom; these help in good yield and best quality mitragyna speciosa. These are as follows.
Seven Practices of Eco-Farming of Kratom:
- Rural areas are suitable for Mitragyna eco-farming; it produces a healthy environment and helps reduce poverty.
- For higher yield, use more innovative ways of agriculture, which take a short time.
- Human resources are best for crop handling, so people should control crops of food and herbal medicines.
- Enhance biodiversity, not only confined to one or two crops, making a home for various seeds, like corn, soy, oat, etc.
- Eco-farming creates soil pest resistance and reduces weeds growth.
- Eco-farming produces multicultural crops, offering more food varieties and stabilizing the economy.
- Soil becomes more nourished and healthier and needs fewer chemical sprays.
Krtaom Eco-farming in Indonesia:
Indonesia is a beautiful tropical country. It is famous for its unique floral biodiversity. Many plants have potent organic compounds and can be used as herbal health supplements. Mitragyna speciosa leaves are one of them. This tropical evergreen tree grows well in the fertile soil of Borneo, Indonesia.
Mature, juicy, and alkaloid-rich leaves are grown in Indonesia’s deep and dense forests on the banks of Kapuas River, West Kalimantan, Indonesia.
A long-term process is required for Kratom growth. The leaves are then converted into various forms, like powder, crushed pieces, extracts, tinctures, or oils.
These products are used not only in Southeast Asian countries but worldwide. The Kratom industry is more significant in herbal supplements.
Indonesia has become the world’s leading country to supply raw mitragyna leaves and processed Kratom powder across the globe.
In this writing, Kratom farming in Indonesia will be discussed in detail.
1: The Mitragyna speciosa Tree:
The common names of Mitragyna speciosa are “kratom,” “ketum,” or “Thom.” The word Kratom is derived from the Thai language, which has been given to the species of a tree of the Coffee Family, Mitragyna speciosa.
This tree belongs to the Rubiaceae family. A tropical, evergreen tree native to Southeast Asian countries.
Ketum trees can grow above almost 18 meters and be more comprehensive than 4.5 meters. The leaves of the Kratom tree vary in colour, from light colour to dark green. These are oval with round yellow flowers; there are about 50 seeds in each flower.
Kratom trees require a unique environment to grow. The soil must have 5.5 to 6 pH, optimum humidity, wetness, and high temperature, and marshes are essential for mitragyna growth.
The most suitable environment for Kratom is provided in Indonesia.
2: Kratom Farming:
In the first step, it is decided either Kratom seeds or starter plants will be used for farming the crop. If roots are selected, then these must be pretty fresh and dried. Because old seeds will not germinate properly, and yield will be affected badly.
The second option is to use starter plants or young shoots. Skilled growers and farmers in Indonesia use this option to get excellent Kratom crop yields. Starters have an advantage over seeds, as they are fresh, mostly, and germination has already occurred.
Moreover, they are less prone to plant infection and can grow rapidly and effectively into Kratom trees.
These rooted plants have gone through various steps of fertilization and germination. These starters are just placed in the enriched soil.
3: Best Soil for Kratom Crop in Indonesia:
The rainy season is best for Kratom growth because the soil becomes more fertile and mixes well during this season. The weather of Indonesia is well suited for premium quality mitragyna growth.
The soil plays a crucial role in the growth of any crop. Indonesian soil is excellent for Kratom farming. It provides excessive irrigation with a proper water drainage system.
Optimum and maintained soil pH between 5.5 to 6 is much more significant for the Ketum tree. The moist soil keeps the roots wet and growing all the time. The ground receives adequate moisture, sunlight, and cold, which helps grow beautiful Kratom trees.
4: Nurturing of Kratom Farms in Indonesia:
When the field is ready, the next step is to feed the crop so that each plant grows to its fullness.
Many vital nutrients are essential for mitragyna growth. When a starter is planted, it is almost 6 to 12 inches long. The target is to achieve a tree about 100 feet long or more than it.
Nitrates, phosphates, and calcium are the essential nutrients that Kratom requires to grow well and fast.
Moreover, the adequate amount of water and fast wind help to produce more substantial Mitragyna trees.
For this reason, growers use to fan the plants. This mimic wind stimulates the farm and causes the strengthening of the leaves.
5: Optimum Light for Kratom Farming in Indonesia:
For any crop, sunlight is an essential component for growth and nourishment. For Kratom, slow exposure to light is best for solid trees.
Both types of light, either indoor or outdoor, can work for Ketum growth. Outdoor light is in the form of sunlight, and indoor light is in the form of artificial rays.
The pattern of light given to the Kratom crop is of two types. One is 12\12, and the other is a 16\8 light cycle.
12\12 means 12 continuous hours under light and 12 hours without sunlight. 16\8 means 16 hours under light and 8 hours without light. It happens under artificial light mostly.
However, in the beginning, plenty of sunlight is required for the premium growth of the Kratom tree. If sunlight is less, other factors like humidity and soil will not work as they should.
6: Harvesting Kratom trees in Indonesia:
After a long time of growth and maturity, the most awaited and exciting stage of Kratom harvesting has arrived. It is quite a significant part of Kratom framing.
For a complete maturity level to reach, it takes up to 2 years, and a tree reaches 10 to 20 feet in height. However, the leaves got matured within a year and could be harvested before they started to fall off.
The active and potent component of the Mitragyna leaves is significant. Within a year, a complete profile of Mitragyna’s active ingredients has been made in the leaves, known as the alkaloids and nitrogenous organic compounds. There are about 26 different alkaloids present in Kratom leaves.
Among them, the most abundant alkaloids are mitragynine and 7-hydroxy mitragynine. The leaves must be fully developed and matured when harvesting occurs.
Every leave is checked before plucking it with hands. Skilled farmers choose young, juicy, and developed leaves and then pluck up these leaves.
7: Drying of Kratom leaves:
The next step is to dry these leaves thoroughly. For this purpose, indoor and outdoor methods are used. In the outdoor process, leaves are dried under direct sunlight for 3 to 4 days. In indoor methods, leaves are dried using different artificial heating methods like oven heating.
8: Processing of Kratom leaves:
The dried leaves are then subjected to various technical procedures. Through these procedures, the leaves are converted into various forms, either crushed leaves, delicate and smooth powder, or liquid extract have been prepared. This powder is further used to manufacture different types of products.
Kratom is one of the most popular herbal supplements used by millions of people around the globe. Its demand has been increasing rapidly. For this reason, many industries are focusing more on cultivating bulk quantities of Mitragyna speciosa. For the best growth of the Kratom crop, soil, water, sunlight, and pH play a significant role. To get premium quality Kratom products, all physical factors must be considered before growing Kratom trees.